Lake, picturesque scenery, boundless expanse of blue, and the famous "head feast" is equally prestigious of its excellent water quality, as one of the important mining water to "farmer spring", its sweet chilly water, but also and it should be the one soil party people describe. But, fortunately Lake area with different drinking water environment in most parts of our country are far from satisfactory, can enjoy high-quality drinking water of very few people. At present, how Chinese society is facing water environment real situation? With this issue, in 2018, the second session of drinking water safety with Dr. Health Forum, told reporters in the national grid to the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Chinese Wang Hao, director of Water Resources water ASTRI.
water and life
"How many things in life, but there is nothing more important than the safety of drinking water." Wang Hao said, "Toward a persons life ., is the process of gradual dehydration of life from birth to the beginning of the amniotic fluid, life is present in 100% aqueous environment; just born infants, accounting for 90% of the water body proportion; 80% of early childhood, accounting for body weight; from the main growing youth to old age, the body of water accounted for 70%; till a ripe old age, the body water content reduced to 60%; till death, accounting for 50% of the water and the bodys tissues and organs, even if the water content. minimal bone, but also accounts for 22% water of the total weight; brain accounting for about 76% moisture; blood water content of about 75% of the human body when a 1% -2% water reduction, will be significantly thirst; dehydration 5%, it will clear the body consciousness, brief fainting; 15% dehydration, the body will die. "
Wang Hao cited the importance of water to the world," China, for example, we can become world. most populous country, and develop the ancient habit of boiling water are inseparable. by boil water to kill pathogens and microbes to ensure a substantial decline in natural mortality of the Chinese population, for a total population base, healthy drinking water contributed. "
"now, we are talking about the importance of power, energy, networks, but out of Africa 100,000 years from human ancestor to modern humans from 600 old age, but nearly 150 years of the electricity thing, and water is indispensable if one day there is no electricity, we can continue to exist; if there is no water, 7.3 billion people will collectively become extinct in 3-5 days. "
this is the magic of water, but also our concern to drink. water securityWhere the original intention.
China water environment
However, at present the Chinese people drinking environment, though improving, but not optimistic.
Wang Hao pointed out that Chinas natural water conservation, such as natural water cycle, rivers, lakes, water wave, suffered a serious pollution and destruction in the past three or four decades, "It was only heavy gold and silver mines, resulting in deterioration of the environment, water resources contamination. after nearly 10 years of focus on environmental management, water environment in recent years, China began turning point for the better, which is an important indicator refer to the two rise, two fall. "
"two up", one refers to GDP rises, one refers to the increase in water environment. "A few years ago, our GDP growth at 7% to 12%, now down to about 6.5%, the future may also be reduced to 5%, but the overall increase in range; in the course of development in each country, to maintain GDP growth of more than 5% when , have shown a trend of environmental degradation, while Chinas GDP at 6% to 8% increase in range is the state of the water environment is also rising, according to the national drinking water concentration of a class of water sources, the two types of water, three water standards nationwide surveillance show that the amount of the riverbed on the rise. this shows that our country is not because drinking water quality continues to worsen economic development, but there has been decoupled from GDP growth and deterioration of water quality trends. "
" two down "refers to that the national indicators 50,000 large and larger rivers COD, negative nutrition, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus total nitrogen, and other contaminants on the decline; the same time, the number of "dirty -" water body, black smelly river in the fall.
Wang Hao said, "based on two rising national statistics, the two fall can draw a basic conclusion: China drinking the overall environment is gradually improving, I hope the turning point has occurred."
However, he also mentioned that a good turn continued conservation and water quality of water sources, still faces many challenges, the next task is arduous.
"This thesis is mainly due to high growth and increased urbanization of the population."
Wang Hao pointed out that in 2017 Chinas urbanization rate was 58%, is still in rapid development period. "A basic judgment is that Chinas urbanization rate to 70% will then be slowed down." Dense urban population will promote more waste discharge, resulting in more solid construction waste, kitchen waste, the formation of environmental pollutants continuing threat. According to statistics, residents who want to produce a 0 every day.8-1.5 kilograms of garbage, environmental planning from the point of view, one person a year to produce 450 kilograms of garbage. "Right now about 1.407 billion people, although land area of 鈥嬧€?.6 million square kilometers, the plains area but only 10% to 12%, Chinas most populous total area of 鈥嬧€媜ne million square kilometers less than ten plain, and over 1 billion people crowded this pressure within about 10% of the space, pollution is very serious, which also caused a lot of the citys water source water constantly on the move. "
Wang Hao cited the example of Shanghai," Shanghai Suzhou River water in the past, after extends to the Huangpu River water, after the move Dianshan, and finally there is no way in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River made clear grass sand water projects, only five million tons every day to ensure that the distant water supply, water pollution and solve the problem of inadequate Shanghai, in addition to Shanghai, there are many cities there is the problem. "
" in addition, there is a challenge to our historical deposit account a lot. construction waste in our stock more than 800 million tons, taken from the air remote sensing photos of the city can be seen, China has more than 200 urban solid waste present in the form of small basin in the so-called small basin means surrounded by mountains, around the ground. but these peri-urban mountain, both is a solid waste landfill caused the stock to solve the garbage will become a long-term and huge challenge. "
" Moreover, Chinas current large industrial entities accounted for the proportion of the national economy, the more dependent on the heavy chemical industry wastewater sewage problem more prominent. "Wang Hao pointed out that" in black smelly river regulation, although we have made great efforts, but is still not satisfactory. now, the state is gradually with systems thinking, interdisciplinary to address these question. "
one of the most important Politburo promulgated the" water ten "provides drinking water sources governance of" the principle of a river a policy "," a lake a policy ". According to Wang Hao, the current standard in use of surface water quality standard GB3838-2002, "faced with the standard scientific issues and problems out of touch with the situation."
He noted that the water quality standards from start-up to Chinas environmental protection cause 1971, mainly copied the North American and European standards for integration with the lapse of several upgrades, but still out of touch with the situation. "Not to mention sparsely populated, large environmental capacity in Canada, only to the United States, on its 9.18 million square kilometers of land, 65% belong to the plains, a population of about 320 million. In the US BestKm river, usually only 3-5 distribution plants, if a plant emissions of pollutants into the river one unit, one hundred kilometers of pollutants into the river reaches only 3-5 units. American Standard, the contaminant capacity of one hundred kilometers to reach 5 units, the total amount of pollutants generally does not exceed the capacity of river water environment, to ensure the safety of drinking water. But China as the worlds factory, with intensive industrial entities, although national well-off performance, but also resulted in intensive pollution. In our country, not to mention economically developed areas of Beijing, Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, only the general area of 鈥嬧€媜ne hundred kilometers reach at least 100-200 distribution companies, each of pollutants into the river a unit in accordance with the national standard, the overall pollutant It is 100-200 units, and the river pollutant capacity of only 5 units, which resulted in serious pollution exceeded declining water quality black-odor. Dongguan, for example, flows through the region of the East River is just about 100 kilometers in length, not too small factories on both sides, only the National Bureau of directory-scale plant will have 400,000, according to the national standard across the board, as a whole pollutants into the river is 400,000 units, far more than five units reaches capacity, such basic water source can not be protected. "
" It is realized that this one size fits all approach is not accurate, the state adopted a water ten, to emphasize the actual situation around a policy a river, a lake a policy "to develop more stringent pollution emissions standards. Such an approach would total control over the past instead of thinking capacity control thinking, taking into account the economic and river water quality hook. A river a policy embodied in the specific operation, we must first make the definition of the ecological function of the river, and water quality surveys, developing water segment environmental capacity, and investigation and analysis of pollutants into the river by pollutants discharged into rivers and water environmental capacity of capacity reduce the amount of difference as a repair, then fix the corresponding reduction in the amount allocated to each outfall into the river 100 km river, the end of each outfall reduce the total allocation own, pour the introduction of various shared outfall that can be tolerated emissions. "
" In addition to the river environment, water ten also highlighted water source protection, which is divided into a core zone, a transition zone, control zone, test zones, the core zone must both Ming grass vegetation water conservation, and also contains plenty of water microorganisms; protected areas are not allowed to form a new source of pollution, which are enacting corresponding GB protection.
Safety end drinking water
Water Source In addition, the safety of drinking water also referred Hao terminalproblem.
He pointed out that, "At present, the development of membrane technology is leading subversive revolution drinking water worldwide application of membrane technology, not only has a great role in promoting pollution control and accelerate the healthy drinking water in universal life. "
it is reported that conventional sewage treatment methods generally rely on biochemical, i.e. water purification using activated sludge containing microorganisms, there are also standard and are not suitable conditions reasonable conditions. "The Guangzhou-Shenzhen and other large cities to the north, for example, water sewage treatment plant needs to reach the standard of four categories of four types of standard or water to urban water environment remained passable. Traditional water treatment technology is definitely not up to the national standard a a, a B standard. However, using a membrane process, is actually a standard can be achieved, and less increase in cost price. currently, some areas using pure double membrane, can be achieved after three sewage water . "
he also noted in the use of membrane technology waterworks," at present the majority of the water purification plant using conventional techniques, the step of substantially coarse grid and fine grid, precipitation, precipitation, sand filtration, carbon filter, dosing, etc., covers an area of, the use of human and more, but the water quality is unstable, difficult to meet the national drinking water standard 106, but by membrane technology, with three workers, two and a half construction time, can be completed membrane technology construction, rural and metropolitan provide more than 150,000 tons of drinking water supply, cost only a dime a watershed seven. "
" In recent years, the emergence of a large number of innovative membrane technology to membrane technology companies Li Sheng companies, for example, the production of PVC film, cost is only 1/7 PVBF common foreign film, but the effect is basically the same. they will improve as the knife-edge film hole type, that is more conducive to energy conservation while trapping microorganisms and contaminants through improved water flow through the membrane from the hole, the equivalent of 3-6 km through a tunnel, enhance water purity. "
Wang Hao believes that the next 10 years, Chinas waterworks and sewage plants It will face disruptive change.
"At the same time, innovative membrane technology will also be changing. Now, waterworks PVC film can not completely block salt, heavy metals and emerging soluble chemicals, household drinking water can only be achieved with a water purifier, but the drawbacks of water purifier is to simultaneously remove harmful substances, but also removes beneficial minerals and other elements now heavily after the removal of water through the membrane with nanomaterials researchers are studyingMetal ions; in addition, before tap water is generally disinfected with hydroxyl radicals, the duration is not long enough, easy to form secondary pollution in transit and terminal, the future of our official website may no longer be a big net, but the dispersion of pipeline; moreover Some new discoveries, such as water rich in hydrogen ions on the human body better, can effectively delay human aging rate of oxidation, even stronger than the most effective known anti-aging effect of drugs 40 times, and has created one ton of water costs only increased by hydrogenation 3-4 cents, good for the health of the population and life expectancy; in addition, the water contains trace amounts of other elements protium deuterium and tritium, a great impact on aging, researchers also are studying water protium deuterium and tritium removal technology for human organs deuterium. Now, the Chinese market has imported low deuterium hydrogen-rich water, the size of a Coke product price of 50 yuan. With the progress of the domestic water technology, we hope that one day, since the majority of the people can enjoy this healthy drinking water. "
Finally, Wang Hao pointed out that the safety of drinking water is extremely heavy, hopes the new technology of drinking water for more interdisciplinary form to the Chinese people a safe and healthy drinking water in the world
(Source!: national grid)
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